Cyber Resilience Act, Preamble 1 to 10 (15.9.2022)
Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on horizontal cybersecurity requirements for products with digital elements and amending Regulation (EU) 2019/1020
THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,
Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and in particular Article 114 thereof,
Having regard to the proposal from the European Commission,
After transmission of the draft legislative act to the national parliaments,
Having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee 13,
Having regard to the opinion of the Committee of the Regions 14,
Acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure,
(1) It is necessary to improve the functioning of the internal market by laying down a uniform legal framework for essential cybersecurity requirements for placing products with digital elements on the Union market. Two major problems adding costs for users and society should be addressed: a low level of cybersecurity of products with digital elements, reflected by widespread vulnerabilities and the insufficient and inconsistent provision of security updates to address them, and an insufficient understanding and access to information by users, preventing them from choosing products with adequate cybersecurity properties or using them in a secure manner.
(2) This Regulation aims to set the boundary conditions for the development of secure products with digital elements by ensuring that hardware and software products are placed on the market with fewer vulnerabilities and that manufactures take security seriously throughout a product’s life cycle. It also aims to create conditions allowing users to take cybersecurity into account when selecting and using products with digital elements.
(3) The relevant Union legislation that is currently in force comprises several sets of horizontal rules that address certain aspects linked to cybersecurity from different angles, including measures to improve the security of the digital supply chain. However, the existing Union legislation related to cybersecurity, including [Directive XXX/XXXX (NIS2)] and Regulation (EU) 2019/881 of the European Parliament and of the Council 15 does not directly cover mandatory requirements for the security of products with digital elements.
(4) While the existing Union legislation applies to certain products with digital elements, there is no horizontal Union regulatory framework establishing comprehensive cybersecurity requirements for all products with digital elements. The various acts and initiatives taken thus far at Union and national levels only partially address the identified cybersecurity-related problems and risks, creating a legislative patchwork within the internal market, increasing legal uncertainty for both manufacturers and users of those products and adding an unnecessary burden on companies to comply with a number of requirements for similar types of products. The cybersecurity of these products has a particularly strong cross-border dimension, as products manufactured in one country are often used by organisations and consumers across the entire internal market. This makes it necessary to regulate the field at Union level. The Union regulatory landscape should be harmonised by introducing cybersecurity requirements for products with digital elements. In addition, certainty for operators and users should be ensured across the Union, as well as a better harmonisation of the single market, creating more viable conditions for operators aiming at entering the Union market.
(5) At Union level, various programmatic and political documents, such as the EU’s Cybersecurity Strategy for the Digital Decade 16 , the Council Conclusions of 2 December 2020 and of 23 May 2022 or the Resolution of the European Parliament of 10 June 2021, 17 have called for specific Union cybersecurity requirements for digital or connected products, with several countries around the world introducing measures to address this issue on their own initiative. In the final report of the Conference on the Future of Europe, 18 citizens called for “a stronger role for the EU in countering cybersecurity threats”.
(6) To increase the overall level of cybersecurity of all products with digital elements placed on the internal market, it is necessary to introduce objective-oriented and technology-neutral essential cybersecurity requirements for these products that apply horizontally.
(7) Under certain conditions, all products with digital elements integrated in or connected to a larger electronic information system can serve as an attack vector for malicious actors. As a result, even hardware and software considered as less critical can facilitate the initial compromise of a device or network, enabling malicious actors to gain privileged access to a system or move laterally across systems. Manufacturers should therefore ensure that all connectable products with digital elements are designed and developed in accordance with essential requirements laid down in this Regulation. This includes both products that can be connected physically via hardware interfaces and products that are connected logically, such as via network sockets, pipes, files, application programming interfaces or any other types of software interface. As cybersecurity threats can propagate through various products with digital elements before reaching a certain target, for example by chaining together multiple vulnerability exploits, manufacturers should also ensure the cybersecurity of those products that are only indirectly connected to other devices or networks.
(8) By setting cybersecurity requirements for placing on the market products with digital elements, the cybersecurity of these products for consumers and for businesses alike will be enhanced. This also includes requirements for placing on the market consumer products with digital elements intended for vulnerable consumers, such as toys and baby monitors.
(9) This Regulation ensures a high level of cybersecurity of products with digital elements. It does not regulate services, such as Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), except for remote data processing solutions relating to a product with digital elements understood as any data processing at a distance for which the software is designed and developed by the manufacturer of the product concerned or under the responsibility of that manufacturer, and the absence of which would prevent such a product with digital elements from performing one of its functions. [Directive XXX/XXXX (NIS2)] puts in place cybersecurity and incident reporting requirements for essential and important entities, such as critical infrastructure, with a view to increasing the resilience of the services they provide. [Directive XXX/XXXX (NIS2)] applies to cloud computing services and cloud service models, such as SaaS. All entities providing cloud computing services in the Union that meet or exceed the threshold for medium-sized enterprises fall in the scope of that Directive.
(10) In order not to hamper innovation or research, free and open-source software developed or supplied outside the course of a commercial activity should not be covered by this Regulation. This is in particular the case for software, including its source code and modified versions, that is openly shared and freely accessible, usable, modifiable and redistributable. In the context of software, a commercial activity might be characterized not only by charging a price for a product, but also by charging a price for technical support services, by providing a software platform through which the manufacturer monetises other services, or by the use of personal data for reasons other than exclusively for improving the security, compatibility or interoperability of the software.
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