Cyber Resilience Act, Preamble 11 to 20 (15.9.2022)
(11) A secure Internet is indispensable for the functioning of critical infrastructures and for society as a whole. [Directive XXX/XXXX (NIS2)] aims at ensuring a high level of cybersecurity of services provided by essential and important entities, including digital infrastructure providers that support core functions of the open Internet, ensure Internet access and Internet services. It is therefore important that the products with digital elements necessary for digital infrastructure providers to ensure the functioning of the Internet are developed in a secure manner and that they comply with well-established Internet security standards. This Regulation, which applies to all connectable hardware and software products, also aims at facilitating the compliance of digital infrastructure providers with the supply chain requirements under the [Directive XXX/XXXX (NIS2)] by ensuring that the products with digital elements that they use for the provision of their services are developed in a secure manner and that they have access to timely security updates for such products.
(12) Regulation (EU) 2017/745 of the European Parliament and of the Council 19 lays down rules on medical devices and Regulation (EU) 2017/746 of the European Parliament and of the Council 20 lays down rules on in vitro diagnostic medical devices. Both Regulations address cybersecurity risks and follow particular approaches that are also addressed in this Regulation. More specifically, Regulations (EU) 2017/745 and (EU) 2017/746 lay down essential requirements for medical devices that function through an electronic system or that are software themselves. Certain non-embedded software and the whole life cycle approach are also covered by those Regulations. These requirements mandate manufacturers to develop and build their products by applying risk management principles and by setting out requirements concerning IT security measures, as well as corresponding conformity assessment procedures. Furthermore, specific guidance on cybersecurity for medical devices is in place since December 2019, providing manufacturers of medical devices, including in vitro diagnostic devices, with guidance on how to fulfil all the relevant essential requirements of Annex I to those Regulations with regard to cybersecurity. 21 Products with digital elements to which either of those Regulations apply should therefore not be subject to this Regulation.
(13) Regulation (EU) 2019/2144 of the European Parliament and of the Council 22 establishes requirements for the type-approval of vehicles, and of their systems and components, introducing certain cybersecurity requirements, including on the operation of a certified cybersecurity management system, on software updates, covering organisations policies and processes for cyber risks related to the entire lifecycle of vehicles, equipment and services in compliance with the applicable United Nations regulations on technical specifications and cybersecurity 23 , and providing for specific conformity assessment procedures. In the area of aviation, the principal objective of Regulation (EU) 2018/1139 of the European Parliament and of the Council 24 is to establish and maintain a high uniform level of civil aviation safety in the Union. It creates a framework for essential requirements for airworthiness for aeronautical products, parts, equipment, including software that take into account obligations to protect against information security threats. Products with digital elements to which Regulation (EU) 2019/2144 applies and those products certified in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2018/1139 are therefore not subject to the essential requirements and conformity assessment procedures set out in this Regulation., The certification process under Regulation (EU) 2018/1139 ensures the level of assurance aimed for by this Regulation.
(14) This Regulation lays down horizontal cybersecurity rules which are not specific to sectors or certain products with digital elements. Nevertheless, sectoral or product-specific Union rules could be introduced, laying down requirements that address all or some of the risks covered by the essential requirements laid down by this Regulation. In such cases, the application of this Regulation to products with digital elements covered by other Union rules laying down requirements that address all or some of the risks covered by the essential requirements set out in Annex I of this Regulation may be limited or excluded where such limitation or exclusion is consistent with the overall regulatory framework applying to those products and where the sectoral rules achieve the same level of protection as the one provided for by this Regulation. The Commission is empowered to adopt delegated acts to amend this Regulation by identifying such products and rules. For existing Union legislation where such limitations or exclusions should apply, this Regulation contains specific provisions to clarify its relation with that Union legislation.
(15) Delegated Regulation (EU) 2022/30 specifies that the essential requirements set out in Article 3(3), point (d) (network harm and misuse of network resources), point (e) (personal data and privacy) and point (f) (fraud) of Directive 2014/53/EU apply to certain radio equipment. [Commission implementation decision XXX/2022 on a standardisation request to the European Standardisation Organisations] lays down requirements for the development of specific standards further specifying how these three essential requirements should be addressed. The essential requirements laid down by this Regulation include all the elements of the essential requirements referred to in Article 3(3), points (d), (e) and (f) of Directive 2014/53/EU. Further, the essential requirements laid down in this Regulation are aligned with the objectives of the requirements for specific standards included in that standardisation request. Therefore, if the Commission repeals or amends Delegated Regulation (EU) 2022/30 with the consequence that it ceases to apply to certain products subject to this Regulation, the Commission and the European Standardisation Organisations should take into account the standardisation work carried out in the context of Commission Implementing Decision C(2022)5637 on a standardisation request for the RED Delegated Regulation 2022/30 in the preparation and development of harmonised standards to facilitate the implementation of this Regulation.
(16) Directive 85/374/EEC 25 is complementary to this Regulation. That Directive sets out liability rules for defective products so that injured persons can claim compensation when a damage has been caused by defective products. It establishes the principle that the manufacturer of a product is liable for damages caused by a lack of safety in their product irrespective of fault (‘strict liability’). Where such a lack of safety consists in a lack of security updates after placing the product on the market, and this causes damage, the liability of the manufacturer could be triggered. Obligations for manufacturers that concern the provision of such security updates should be laid down in this Regulation.
(17) This Regulation should be without prejudice to Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council 26 , including to provisions for the establishment of data protection certification mechanisms and of data protection seals and marks, for the purpose of demonstrating compliance of processing operations by controllers and processors with that Regulation. Such operations could be embedded in a product with digital elements. Data protection by design and by default, and cybersecurity in general, are key elements of Regulation (EU) 2016/679. By protecting consumers and organisations from cybersecurity risks, the essential cybersecurity requirements laid down in this Regulation, are also to contribute to enhancing the protection of personal data and privacy of individuals. Synergies on both standardisation and certification on cybersecurity aspects should be considered through the cooperation between the Commission, the European Standardisation Organisations, the European Union Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA), the European Data Protection Board (EDPB) established by Regulation (EU) 2016/679, and the national data protection supervisory authorities. Synergies between this Regulation and the Union data protection law should also be created in the area of market surveillance and enforcement. To this end, national market surveillance authorities appointed under this Regulation should cooperate with authorities supervising Union data protection law. The latter should also have access to information relevant for accomplishing their tasks.
(18) To the extent that their products fall within the scope of this Regulation, issuers of European Digital Identity Wallets as referred to in Article [Article 6a(2) of Regulation (EU) No 910/2014, as amended by Proposal for a Regulation amending Regulation (EU) No 910/2014 as regards establishing a framework for a European Digital Identity], should comply with both the horizontal essential requirements established by this Regulation and the specific security requirements established by Article [Article 6a of Regulation (EU) No 910/2014, as amended by Proposal for a Regulation amending Regulation (EU) No 910/2014 as regards establishing a framework for a European Digital Identity]. In order to facilitate compliance, wallet issuers should be able to demonstrate the compliance of European Digital Identity Wallets with the requirements set out respectively in both acts by certifying their products under a European cybersecurity certification scheme established under Regulation (EU) 2019/881 and for which the Commission specified via implementing act a presumption of conformity for this Regulation, in so far as the certificate, or parts thereof, covers those requirements.
(19) Certain tasks provided for in this Regulation should be carried out by ENISA, in accordance with Article 3(2) of Regulation (EU) 2019/881. In particular, ENISA should receive notifications from manufacturers of actively exploited vulnerabilities contained in products with digital elements, as well as incidents having an impact on the security of those products. ENISA should also forward these notifications to the relevant Computer Security Incident Response Teams (CSIRTs) or, respectively, to the relevant single points of contact of the Member States designated in accordance with Article [Article X] of Directive [Directive XXX / XXXX (NIS2)], and inform the relevant market surveillance authorities about the notified vulnerability. On the basis of the information it gathers, ENISA should prepare a biennial technical report on emerging trends regarding cybersecurity risks in products with digital elements and submit it to the Cooperation Group referred to in Directive [Directive XXX / XXXX (NIS2)]. Furthermore, considering its expertise and mandate, ENISA should be able to support the process for implementation of this Regulation. In particular, it should be able to propose joint activities to be conducted by market surveillance authorities based on indications or information regarding potential non-compliance with this Regulation of products with digital elements across several Member States or identify categories of products for which simultaneous coordinated control actions should be organised. In exceptional circumstances, at the request of the Commission, ENISA should be able to conduct evaluations in respect of specific products with digital elements that present a significant cybersecurity risk, where an immediate intervention is required to preserve the good functioning of the internal market.
(20) Products with digital elements should bear the CE marking to indicate their conformity with this Regulation so that they can move freely within the internal market. Member States should not create unjustified obstacles to the placing on the market of products with digital elements that comply with the requirements laid down in this Regulation and bear the CE marking.
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